Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RM) is a rare, potentially lethal fungal infection. Traditional teaching encourages aggressive surgical resection until viable bleeding tissue is encountered, often leading to orbital exenteration, skull base resection, and cerebral debridement, in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. We present a 2-year-old male with acute lymphocytic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy presenting with RM and unilateral orbital and intracranial involvement. After aggressive sinonasal debridement, systemic antifungal and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, he recovered without need for further aggressive tissue resection. We report the successful management of invasive orbital and intracranial RM without orbital exenteration or cerebral debridement.

Mutchnick, Soares, Shkoukani, , , , , , (2015). To exenterate or not? An unusual case of pediatric rhinocerebral mucormycosis. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 2015 Feb;79(2):267-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510987