Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 3.2 to 5.3 million persons in the United States (U.S.), and the impact in the U.S. military is proportionally higher. Consensus is lacking regarding an accepted outcome to measure the effectiveness of interventions to improve the symptoms associated with TBI, and no standard-of-care treatment exists for mild TBI (mTBI). A recent literature review evaluated hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂) interventions, and findings were mixed. We conducted a systematic review of non-HBO₂ mTBI interventional trials published in 2005-2015 in military and civilian populations. A total of 154 abstracts, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five pilot studies were reviewed. RCTs were evaluated using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria. Results indicated that studies published within the period of review were small pilot studies for rehabilitation therapy and motion capture or virtual reality gaming interventions. Neuropsychological assessments were commonly specified outcomes, and most studies included a combination of symptom and neuropsychological assessments. Findings indicated a lack of large-scale, well-controlled trials to address the symptoms and sequelae of this condition, but results of small exploratory studies show evidence of potentially promising interventions.

Wilson, Roth, Lindblad, Weaver (2017). Review of recent non-hyperbaric oxygen interventions for mild traumatic brain injury. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, ;43(5):615-627. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28768077