Rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major cause of chronic, neurological disability, with a significant long-term disability burden, often requiring comprehensive rehabilitation. To systematically evaluate evidence from published Cochrane Reviews of clinical trials to summarise the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of rehabilitation interventions for people with MS (pwMS), to improve patient outcomes, and to highlight current gaps in knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to December 2017, to identify Cochrane Reviews that assessed the effectiveness of organised rehabilitation interventions for pwMS. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of included reviews, using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) tool, and the quality of the evidence for reported outcomes, using the GRADE framework. Overall, we included 15 reviews published in the Cochrane Library, comprising 164 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four controlled clinical trials, with a total of 10,396 participants. The included reviews evaluated a wide range of rehabilitation interventions, including: physical activity and exercise therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), whole-body vibration, occupational therapy, cognitive and psychological interventions, nutritional and dietary supplements, vocational rehabilitation, information provision, telerehabilitation, and interventions for the management of spasticity.

Manipulation of Oxygen and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Factors as Possible Interventions for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence for and Against.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is normally considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), where T-cells breaching the blood brain barrier react against proteins of the axonal myelin sheaths, leading to focal plaques and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. Many current therapies are immunosuppressive in nature and are designed to target the immune system at an early stage of the disease. But there is no cure and MS may evolve into a neurodegenerative disease, where immunomodulatory treatments appear less effective. Neurodegeneration is influenced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated stress which can be induced independently of immune processes. Since 1970, MS patients have been self-managing their long term symptoms using hyperbaric oxygen and reporting improvement in their symptoms, especially bladder control.

Brain perfusion imaging with voxel-based analysis in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients with a moderate to severe stage of disease: a boon for the workforce.

The present study was carried out to evaluate cerebral perfusion in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a moderate to severe stage of disease. Some patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and brain perfusion between before and after that was compared. We retrospectively reviewed 25 secondary progressive (SP)-MS patients from the hospital database. Neurological disability evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale Score (EDSS). Brain perfusion was performed by (99 m) Tc-labeled bicisate (ECD) brain SPECT and the data were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). In total, 16 patients underwent HBOT. Before HBOT and at the end of 20 sessions of oxygen treatment, 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed again then the results were evaluated and compared. Brain perfusion was performed by (99 m) Tc-labeled bicisate (ECD) brain SPECT and the data were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A total of 25 SP-MS patients, 14 females (56 %) and 11 males (44 %) with a mean age of 38.92 ± 11.28 years included in the study. The mean disease duration was 8.70 ± 5.30 years. Of the 25 patients, 2 (8 %) had a normal SPECT and 23 (92 %) had abnormal brain perfusion SPECT studies. The study showed a significant association between severity of perfusion impairment with disease duration and also with EDSS (P <0.05). There was a significant improvement in pre- and post-treatment perfusion scans (P <0.05)

Observations on the brain vasculature in multiple sclerosis: A historical perspective.

To review the literature on vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) specifically pathological observations of the perivenular distribution of MS lesions and venous pathology in MS. Comprehensive literature search from 2012 back to 1839. One hundred and thirty two papers from 1839 to 2012 were included in this study. Multiple authors observed central venules in MS lesions as a feature of MS with the first specific mention by Rindfleisch in 1863. Recent high field strength MRI has reintroduced the perivenular distribution of MS lesions to a new generation, and has suggested that there is disease specificity to this distribution. In addition Putnam and others in the 1930s hypothesized that venous disease was causative for MS. Treatments based on these observations have included anticoagulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and recently endovascular venous procedures.